Abdur Rehman Chughtai


Abdur Rehman Chughtai was born on the 21st of September 1899 at “Mohalla Chabuk Sawaran”, in the city of Lahore. He died at his birth place, Lahore, on the 17th of January 1975.

In the 1920s, Chughtai created large watercolours in a modified Bengal – school style. By the 1940s, his painting style was influenced by Mughal architecture, Islamic calligraphy, miniature painting (small detailed painting, usually a portrait, executed in watercolours on parchment) and Art Noveau (decorative style that flourished in western Europe between 1890 and 1910)

HIs diverse subject matter included heroes from Islamic history, Mughal monarchs, and episodes from Punjabi, Persian and Indo – Islamic folktales.

After the partition in 1947, he came to be known as the National Artist of Pakistan.

At an early age, Chughtai studied at Lahore’s Myo school of Art. Chughtai was printmaker having studied the art in London.

Though he was self – taught, his early style is indistinguishable from that of Bengal school. He may have been influenced by the Calcutta – trained painter, Samenendranath Gupta, a teacher and vice – principal at the Myo school of Arts during Chugtai’s years there, in the early 1920s, as a drawing master in the photolithography department.

The influence of Abdur Rehman Chughtai took theMughal art out of its narrow miniature framework and gave it the dignity of modern dimension. He effectively transplanted to canvases and to book illustration the lyricism of the Mughal and Pahari miniature. Chughtai was dificult to emulate because of his persistence in traditional subjects and highly stylized treatment.

His works are part of some of the most impressive art collections in the world. The British Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the collection of Queen Elizabeth ll and Delhi’s National Museum of Modern Arts are all proud owners of Chugtais’.

Abdur Rehman Chughtai was the one who designed the logo of PTV and stamps for Pakistan post. In his lifetime he made some 2000 watercolours, 1000s of sketches, and nearly 3000 etcings.

His lines are strong and distinct and the work is filigreed with oriental motifs and intricacy of detail. Chughtai loved painting figures, and this went well with the audiences who were still coming to terms with the modernism that had taken birth in post Great War Europe. Chightai was not an artist unappreciated in his own time.

The Pakistani government awarded him the Hilal – e – Imtiaz.

Chughtai Museum, as it is known, is home to the largest collection of Chughtais in the world.

In 1927, Chughtai published Mraqqa, his first major work. It comprised of a series of illustrations he made for new edition of the thought – heavy and highly imaginative versus (Urdu and Persian) of Ghalib.

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Ecological Ethics


Firstly, the Ecological Ethics constitutes that everything being a larger picture where one species is dependent on the other. It says that even if one of the species was destroyed in this ecological system, the system’s smoothness will be lost.

The Utilitarian Approach

* Inflicting pain is evil. Be it on humans or non humans.
* Pain of animals must be considered as equal to that of humans (us).

The Non-Utilitarian Approach

* Every life has a value, be it of human or non humans.
* Being respected is a moral right of every living thing. Even if they are animals their right must be safeguarded.
* Humans have a duty towards animals and they (humans) must fulfill it.

The ecological Ethics further talk about preserving nature in its true form so that this world remains beautiful. The arguments for this point being that it is right of every being to be able to enjoy the beauty of mother nature and like wise a duty of every being to keep safe what it belongs to and what belongs to them.

My understanding of the topic

Basically ecological ethics talks about three main things. Following are the points it talks about:

* Moral rights for non humans
* Attitude of respect is morally demanded by all nature
* Something alive should be preserved and protected so that it can go on living

Colours Define Personalities


Whether its an affectionate pink or a compassionate blue, our favourite colours help us understand our personalities better.

White: Symbolic of purity, innocence and naivete, white has strong connotations of youth and purity. If you are an older person, your preference for white could indicate a desire for perfection and impossible ideals, maybe an attempt to recapture lost youth and freshness. It may also symbolize a desire for simplicity or the simple life.

Red: The color of strength, health, and vitality, Red is often the color chosen by someone outgoing, aggressive, vigorous and impulsive—or someone who would like to be! It goes with an ambitious nature but those who choose it can be abrupt at times, determined to get all they can out of life, quick to judge people and take sides. Red people are usually optimistic and can’t stand monotony; they are rather restless and not at all introspective, so they may be unaware of their own shortcomings. They find it hard to be objective and may blame others for any mishaps. Quiet people with a preference for red may feel the need for the warmth, strength and life-giving qualities of the color, or they blanket their true feelings under a sober exterior. Red is usually chosen by people with open and uncomplicated natures, with a zest for life.

Pink: This color embodies the gentler qualities of Red, symbolizing love and affection. Women who prefer Pink tend to be maternal. Pink desires protection, special treatment and a sheltered life. Pink people require affection and like to feel loved and secure, perhaps wanting to appear delicate and fragile. Pink people tend to be charming and gentle, if a trifle indefinite.

Green: The color of harmony and balance, Green symbolizes hope, renewal and peace, and is usually liked by the gentle and sincere. Greens are generally frank, community-minded people, fairly sociable but preferring peace at any price. Green people can be too self-effacing, modest and patient, so they may get exploited by others. They are usually refined, civilized and reputable.

Blue: Soft, soothing, compassionate and caring, Blue is the color of deliberation and introspection, conservatism and duty. Patient, persevering, conscientious, sensitive and self-controlled, Blues like to be admired for their steady character and wisdom. They are faithful, but are often worriers with somewhat inflexible beliefs and can be too cautious, and suspicious of flamboyant behavior. capable of persisting against all odds when determined to reach a goal.

Intent on establishing a personal attitudinal framework within goal accomplishment. Exacting, discriminating, poised and attractive, the Blue-Green person tends to be sensitive, intellectual and refined, persevering and stable if rather detached. Blue-Greens have excellent taste, and are usually courteous and charming, capable but often refusing help or guidance. Complex, imaginative and original, Turquoise people drive themselves hard and may be in a state of turmoil under their outwardly cool exterior.

Purple: Purples are highly individual, fastidious, witty and sensitive, with a strong desire to be unique and different. Temperamental, expansive and artistic, a Purple person may become aloof and sarcastic when misunderstood. If you chose Purple, you tend to be unconventional, tolerant and dignified, likely to achieve positions of authority.

Black: Dignified and impressive without being showy, Black people want to give the appearance of mystery, but their preference may also indicate a suppression of desires and worldly aims, suggesting hidden depths and inner longings.